Vanadium (V) is the 17th most commonly occurring element in the earths’ crust and finds wide use as an alloying element in steels. The atomic number of vanadium is 23 and its atomic weight is 50.94. It has a density of 6.11 gm/cc. Its melting point is 1910 deg C and boiling point is 3407 deg C. The density of liquid at melting point of vanadium is 5.5 gm/cc. It has a body centred cubic structure.
Vanadium steel is being used for applications in axles, bicycle frames, crankshafts, gears, and other critical components. There are two groups of vanadium alloyed steels. Vanadium high carbon steel alloys containing 0.15 % to 0.25 % V, and high-speed tool steels (HSS) For high-speed tool steels, hardness above HRC 60 (Rockwell hardness) can be achieved. HSS steel is used in surgical instruments and tools.
Ferro-Alloy Resources Limited (LON:FAR) is developing the giant Balasausqandiq vanadium deposit in Kyzylordinskaya oblast of southern Kazakhstan. The ore at this deposit is unlike that of nearly all other primary vanadium deposits and is capable of being treated by a much lower cost process.